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Bibliographic Transition in France

The French Agenda : an Overview

From very early on, France has taken a genuine interest in RDA, the new international cataloguing code. We followed its development, took part in its translation into French, and soon after RDA was published in 2010, a national working group set out to assess the code in order to orient the French position on its implementation.

Meanwhile, we engaged in the global efforts of promoting, improving and internationalising the code through European and international bodies such as EURIG and IFLA.

In November 2014, the National Library of France (Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF) and the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education (Agence bibliographique de l’enseignement supérieur, ABES) – the two national bibliographic agencies respectively mandated to cover the metadata standardisation needs and policies of both public and research libraries – jointly expressed the French position on RDA, defining the pivotal points of the Bibliographic Transition Program. Their roadmap reads as follows:

  • FRBRising French catalogs using automatic data processing as well as the technologies and standards of the semantic web.
  • Deriving new cataloguing rules from RDA in RDA-FR: A French Transposition of RDA, which might prefigure a French application profile of RDA. These new rules are being gradually implemented since 2015.
  • Launching a national Bibliographic Transition Program, which aims at supporting all stakeholders in France through the drastic changes induced by such a major normative and technological evolution.
Image "Shift"

(CC BY-NC-SA-2.0 Leo Reynolds, source : Flickr)

The French Perspective on the Current Version of RDA

Adopting RDA would doubtless represent a significant cultural shift for French cataloguers insofar as France does not have an AACR or MARC21 tradition. As far as cataloguing rules are concerned, we have always abided by IFLA’s standards though, notably the detailed prescriptions of the International Standard for Bibliographic Description (ISBD) : that is why we promoted the use of the UNIMARC format and priviledged the creation of links between authority and bibliographic records.

French professionals agree that although RDA is FRBR-based, the model cannot be fully implemented by a code which to date does not take full advantage of the links between the two kinds of records upon which it reposes – bibliographic and authority. Whether from a strategic or bibliographic point of view, adopting RDA as is could therefore not be considered as a progress in the national context, where the wealth and maintenance of those very links constitute the core and strength of all major French library catalogues.

Furthermore, the flexibility of RDA, which is one of its main assets, also encourages the multiplication of national or sector-specific application profiles, each stakeholder being free to choose from a vast array of options and alternatives. Deriving foreign records is therefore very likely to require human intervention. This is hardly in keeping with the cost-efficiency promise of what used to make RDA so attractive: its international interoperability.

FRBRising Catalogs

Rather than rushing through the adoption of a code still unsuited to the national context, France focuses on producing FRBR-compliant catalogs and demonstrating their serviceability. FRBRisation indeed extricates library catalogs from their document-oriented logic to provide users with information – in other words authority data on people, corporate bodies, concepts, events, etc.

First, this approach calls for massive processing, refactoring and publication of huge heritage datasets in the Linked Data cloud: the aim is to show the benefits of information thus structured, before impulsing a more dramatic turn on the descriptive rules and practices for current cataloguing.

One of the first steps taken on this path is the clustering of all editions pertaining to a work. This is what Abes is currently working on in its collective catalogue for academic institutions – the Sudoc – so as to equip it with FRBR-compliant data.

Likewise, building upon the heritage data in its catalogue, the BnF uses the algorithms developed for data.bnf.fr – its Linked Open Data service – to automatically generate links between a work and its editions. In turn, those links power the catalogue, and lay the foundation stone of a truly FRBRised architecture.

RDA-FR : A French Transposition of RDA

Beyond such massive data processing, France ultimately aims to adopt a national RDA profile matching its bibliographic ambition.

A working group called “Standardisation – RDA in France” (Groupe “Normalisation – RDA en France”) is currently drafting the new French cataloguing code, RDA-FR: A French Transposition of RDA. The rules will be gradually published and applied over years, eventually replacing the French cataloguing rules published by AFNOR, the French standardisation body.

The first elements of RDA-FR were published in June 2015, and are freely available on this website. They are listed on a content page of this website. The ongoing standardisation roadmap is detailed on a different page.

RDA-FR: A French Transposition of RDA refers to RDA while preserving the French bibliographic analysis as well as the advanced features of French library catalogs. It conforms to the international rules whenever possible, but bends them to the French context whenever necessary. It is based on the French translation of RDA, while arranging for additions, exceptions or adaptations to French-specific cases.

It can therefore be seen as the prefiguration of a future French application profile of RDA.

France’s Commitment to International Collaboration

The latest developments in the governance of RDA evidence the governing bodies’ desire to turn RDA into a truly international cataloguing code. France is very attuned to this evolution and will continue its long-time involvement in international work around RDA, feeding the global discussion and advocating for converging practices.

EURIG (European RDA Interest Group) was always the platform of choice for France to put forward its RDA evolution proposals, which helped carry one single European voice to the JSC. Our expertise has allowed us to rise as a particularly active member, whose lead on bibliographic information has been followed by other members of EURIG wishing to develop their own application profile.

Nation-wide Transitional Coaching for French Professionals

The website transition-bibliographique.fr was launched in 2015 to support French professionals through the Bibliographic Transition. It provides resources and news on all topics related to the latest changes in bibliographic information: new cataloguing rules, ongoing standardisation, training sessions, the evolutions of information retrieval, etc.

The national “Training” working group (Groupe “Formation”) coordinates French training on the evolution of library catalogs and cataloguing rules, relying on a national network of trainers. As of 2015, they implemented two modules targeting all professionals in France :

The Bibliographic Transition Program also aims to provide technology intelligence and consulting, on the evolutions of ILS and data conversion in particular. This ambition is upheld by the “ILS and data” working group (Groupe “Systèmes et données”), which fosters dialogue between standardisation experts, information professionals, ILS managers, and providers of software solutions.

Last updated: février 17, 2016 at 8:35

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